Reproductive and developmental toxicity screening study of 2,4-dinitrophenol in rats

Environ Toxicol. 2009 Feb;24(1):74-81. doi: 10.1002/tox.20398.


Rats were treated by gavage once daily with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) at 0 (control), 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg bw. Males were dosed for 46 days, beginning 14 days before mating, and females were dosed for 40-47 days, from 14 days before mating to day 3 of lactation. No deaths were observed in males and females of any group. A significant decrease in body weight gain and significant increase in liver weight were found in males and females at 30 mg/kg bw/day. The number of live pups on postnatal days (PNDs) 0 and 4, live birth index, and body weight of live male and female pups on PNDs 0 and 1 were significantly lowered at 30 mg/kg bw/day. External and internal examinations of pups revealed no increased incidence of malformations in DNP-treated groups. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that DNP has general and reproductive/developmental toxicity, but not teratogenicity, under the present conditions. The NOAEL of DNP is considered to be 10 mg/kg bw/day in rats.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol / toxicity*
  • Abnormalities, Drug-Induced
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn / growth & development*
  • Body Weight
  • Female
  • Liver / abnormalities
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Male
  • Organ Size
  • Pregnancy
  • Rats
  • Reproduction / drug effects*


  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol