The safety of mycophenolate mofetil in pregnancy

Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008 May;7(3):219-22. doi: 10.1517/14740338.7.3.219.


Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has proved to be a major addition to the therapeutic options for the treatment of multisystem autoimmune disorders. The majority of the autoimmune rheumatological diseases are more prevalent in women and they are often first diagnosed during childbearing age. MMF use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of malformations and first-trimester pregnancy loss. The most frequent malformations include external ear and other facial malformations such as cleft palate and lip. Therefore MMF should be avoided during pregnancy and safe contraceptive methods provided.

Publication types

  • Editorial

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / etiology*
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Contraindications
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects*
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Lupus Nephritis / drug therapy
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange*
  • Mycophenolic Acid / adverse effects
  • Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Organ Transplantation
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy*
  • Pregnancy Outcome


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Mycophenolic Acid