The need to enhance the immunogenicity of purified subunit antigens has prompted the development of new adjuvants. The adjuvant emulsion MF59 has been tested in animals in combination with different antigens and finally evaluated in humans. It was licensed after the successful outcome of preclinical and clinical testing. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of the MF59 adjuvant, including animal testing, clinical experience with various vaccines, and information from current postmarketing surveillance data. This review supports the hypothesis that MF59 is a safe adjuvant for human use.