In this article the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases are reviewed. The primary focus is on the structure and function of this diverse family of enzymes, and the elegant regulation of their activity. Structures are compared in order to highlight the conserved architecture of their catalytic domains with respect to each other as well as protein kinase A, a prototype for kinase structure. In addition to reviewing structure and function in these enzymes, the variety of biological processes for which they play a mediating role are also examined. Finally, how the enzymes become activated in the intracellular setting is considered by exploring the reciprocal interactions that exist between calcium binding to calmodulin when interacting with the CaM-kinases.