Diagnostic markers for eight Thinopyrum distichum addition chromosomes in Triticum turgidum were established using C-banding, in situ hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The C-band karyotype conclusively identified individual Th. distichum chromosomes and distinguished them from chromosomes of T. turgidum. Also, TaqI and BamHI restriction fragments containing 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA sequences were identified as positive markers specific to Th. distichum chromosomes. Simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization showed both 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA genes to be located on chromosome IV. Thinopyrum distichum chromosome VII carried only a 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA locus and chromosome pair II carried only a 5S rRNA locus. The arrangement of these loci on Th. distichum chromosome IV was different from that on wheat chromosome pair 1B. Two other unidentified Th. distichum chromosome pairs also carried 5S rRNA loci. The homoeologous relationship between Th. distichum chromosomes IV and VII and chromosomes of other members of the Triticeae was discussed by comparing results obtained using these physical and molecular markers.