Microtubule-associated Tau proteins belong to a family of factors that polymerize tubulin dimers and stabilize microtubules. Tau is strongly expressed in neurons, localized in the axon and is essential for neuronal plasticity and network. From the very beginning of Tau discovery, proteomics methods have been essential to the knowledge of Tau biochemistry and biology. In this review, we have summarized the main contributions of several proteomic methods in the understanding of Tau, including expression, post-translational modifications and structure, in both physiological and pathophysiological aspects. Finally, recent advances in proteomics technology are essential to develop further therapeutic targets and early predictive and discriminative diagnostic assays for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.