The Salmonella PmrAB regulon: lipopolysaccharide modifications, antimicrobial peptide resistance and more

Trends Microbiol. 2008 Jun;16(6):284-90. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2008.03.007. Epub 2008 May 6.


Microbes are able to sense and respond to their environment primarily through the use of two-component regulatory systems. Many of these systems activate virulence-factor expression and are regulated by host-derived signals, having evolved to control gene expression at the key time and place for optimal establishment and maintenance of infection. Salmonella spp. are enteric pathogens that are able to survive both within host macrophages during systemic spread and killing by innate immune factors at intestinal mucosal surfaces. This review focuses on a key mechanism of pathogenesis that involves the PmrA-PmrB two-component system, which is activated in vivo by direct or indirect means and regulates genes that modify lipopolysaccharide, aiding survival in host (and non-host) environments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / pharmacology*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Humans
  • Lipopolysaccharides / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Regulon* / genetics
  • Regulon* / physiology
  • Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics
  • Salmonella typhimurium / metabolism
  • Salmonella typhimurium / pathogenicity*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Virulence


  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • PmrB protein, bacteria
  • Transcription Factors
  • pmrA protein, Bacteria