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. 2008 May;28(5):710-22.
doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.02.020. Epub 2008 May 8.

Human Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines

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Human Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines

Joseph D Miller et al. Immunity. .
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Abstract

To explore the human T cell response to acute viral infection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8(+) T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines--two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines generated a brisk primary effector CD8(+) T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be readily quantitated with a simple set of four phenotypic markers. Secondly, the vaccine-induced T cell response was highly specific with minimal bystander effects. Thirdly, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells passed through an obligate effector phase, contracted more than 90% and gradually differentiated into long-lived memory cells. Finally, these memory cells were highly functional and underwent a memory differentiation program distinct from that described for human CD8(+) T cells specific for persistent viruses. These results provide a benchmark for CD8(+) T cell responses induced by two of the most effective vaccines ever developed.

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