LINGO-1 is selectively expressed in the CNS on both oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and neurons. Its expression is developmentally regulated in the normal CNS, as well as up-regulated in human or rat models of neuropathologies. LINGO-1 functions as a negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, neuronal survival and axonal regeneration. Across diverse animal CNS disease models, targeted LINGO-1 inhibition was found to promote neuron and oligodendrocyte survival, axon regeneration, oligodendrocyte differentiation, remyelination and improved functional recovery. The targeted inhibition of LINGO-1 therefore presents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurological diseases.