The 5S rDNA sequences have been mapped on four pairs of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chromosomes using in situ hybridization and barley monotelotrisomic lines. The 5S rDNA sequences are located, genetically and physically, on the short arm of chromosome 1 (7I) and the long arms of chromosomes 2 (2I) and 3 (3I). The 5S rDNA sequence is also located on the physically long arm of chromosome 4 (4I). Only one site on chromosome 2(2I) has previously been reported. The characteristic locations of the 5S rDNA sequences make them useful as molecular markers to identify each barley chromosome. The physical position of the low-copy α-amylase-2 gene was determined using in situ hybridization; the location of this gene on the long arm of chromosome 1 (7I) was confirmed by reprobing the same preparation with the 5S rDNA probe. The results show that there is a discrepancy between the physical and genetic position of the α-amylase-2 gene.