In situ DNA hybridization with 18S-28S and 5S ribosomal DNA probes was used to map 18S-28S nucleolar organizers and tandem 5S repeats to meiotic chromosomes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Mapping was performed by correlating hybridization sites to particular positions in translocation quadrivalents. Arm assignment required translocation quadrivalents with at least one interstitial chiasma and sufficient distance between the hybridization site and the centromere. We had previously localized a major 18S-28S site to the short arm of chromosome 9; here we mapped two additional major 18S-28S sites to the short arm of chromosome 16 and the left arm of chromosome 23. We also identified and mapped a minor 18S-28S site to the short arm of chromosome 7. Two 5S sites of unequal size were identified, the larger one near the centromere of chromosome 9 and the smaller one near the centromere of chromosome 23. Synteny of 5S and 18S-28S sites indicated homeology of chromosomes 9 and 23, while positions of the other two 18S-28S sites supplement genetic evidence that chromosomes 7 and 16 are homeologous.