Genotypic variation of quantitative trait loci controlling in vitro androgenesis in maize

Genome. 1994 Dec;37(6):970-6. doi: 10.1139/g94-137.


A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for androgenetic capability has been conducted on three different crosses in maize, including very high and nonresponding lines for androgenesis. The doubled haploid lines derived by anther culture from the crosses DH5 x DH7, A188 x DH7, and R6 x DH99 showed a range of 0-70%, 0-40%, and 0-50% androgenetic responding anthers, respectively. The genotypic heritability of means for this trait is close to 0.90 for A188 x DH7 and 0.78 for R6 x DH99. The QTL analysis involved in each population the mapping of more than 100 loci covering a large part of the genome with reasonably spaced markers averaging 12 cM. Different measurements describing the androgenetic process were studied: AC, percentage of responding anthers; ELS, number of androgenetic embryos produced per 100 plated anthers; PLE, number of plantlets regenerated per 100 embryos; PLA, number of plantlets per 100 plated anthers. In each cross, three to four QTLs were found for AC, explaining 30-40% of the phenotypic variation. The QTL detected for PLA was also strong QTL for AC or ELS. This agrees with the observation that these last two traits are good predictors for final plantlet yield. The QTLs found were specific, although the same line DH7 was used in two crosses and DH99 derived from DH5 and DH7 in the third cross. These results suggest that the transfer of the androgenetic capabilities in elite germplasm will still involve a phenotypic evaluation of the androgenetic performances. A backcross-assisted selection based only on the genotype at the QTL is probably possible but only within the crosses used for this QTL analysis.