RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter x spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross

Genome. 1995 Jun;38(3):575-85. doi: 10.1139/g95-074.


A genetic map of 92 RFLP loci and two storage protein loci was made using 94 doubled-haploid lines from a cross between the winter barley variety Igri and the spring variety Triumph. The markers were combined with data from two field experiments (one spring sown and one autumn (fall) sown) and a glasshouse experiment to locate a total of 13 genes (five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci (QTL)) controlling flowering time. Two photoperiod response genes were found; Ppd-H1 on chromosome 2(2H)S regulated flowering time under long days, while Ppd-H2 on chromosome 5(1H)L was detected only under short days. In the field experiments Ppd-H1 strongly affected flowering time from spring and autumn sowings, while Ppd-H2 was detected only in the autumn sowing. The glasshouse experiment also located two vernalization response genes, probably Sh and Sh2, on chromosomes 4(4H)L and 7(5H)L, respectively. The vernalization response genes had little effect on flowering time in the field. Variation in flowering time was also affected by nine additional genes, whose effects were not specifically dependent on photoperiod or vernalization. One was the denso dwarfing gene on chromosome 3(3H)L. The remaining eight were QTLs of smaller effect. One was located on chromosome 2(2H), one on 3(3H), one on 4(4H), one on 7(5H), two on 6(6H), and two on 1(7H). Model fitting showed that the 13 putative genes, and their interactions, could account for all the observed genetical variation from both spring and autumn sowings, giving a complete model for the control of flowering time in this cross.