Dynamic muscle transfer in facial reanimation

Facial Plast Surg. 2008 May;24(2):204-10. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1075835.


Dynamic muscle transfers offer the hope of improved facial support and symmetry, with volitional movement. These are most commonly employed for reanimation of the oral commissure to produce a smile. In addition, muscle transfers have been used successfully to reestablish eye closure. Facial paralysis of long-standing duration presents challenges quite distinct from paralysis that is managed early after onset. It is in this situation, most commonly, that dynamic muscle transfers are used. In this respect, the alternative is free tissue transfer. Each of these two options have advantages and disadvantages.

MeSH terms

  • Blinking / physiology
  • Dissection
  • Eyelids / physiopathology
  • Eyelids / surgery
  • Facial Muscles / physiopathology
  • Facial Muscles / surgery
  • Facial Paralysis / physiopathology
  • Facial Paralysis / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Masseter Muscle / transplantation
  • Muscle, Skeletal / transplantation*
  • Neck Muscles / transplantation
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Smiling / physiology
  • Surgical Flaps
  • Temporal Muscle / anatomy & histology
  • Temporal Muscle / transplantation
  • Tendon Transfer / methods
  • Treatment Outcome