Boerhaavia diffusa stimulates cell-mediated immune response by upregulating IL-2 and downregulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines and GM-CSF in B16F-10 metastatic melanoma bearing mice

J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(1):17-29.


Effect of Boerhaavia diffusa extract on the Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) response in metastatic condition was studied using C57BL/6 mice model. Administration of Boerhaavia diffusa enhanced Natural Killer (NK) cell activity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent complement mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) and the activity was observed in treated group much earlier compared to the metastatic tumor bearing control. Production of the cytokine IL-2 was significantly enhanced by the administration of Boerhaavia diffusa compared to the untreated metastatic tumor bearing control. Levels of GM-CSF and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-a were significantly lowered by Boerhaavia diffusa administration compared to metastatic control. The gene expression level of IL-2, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF in B16F-10 cells also correlate the above result. These results indicate Boerhaavia diffusa could enhance the immune response against metastatic progression of B16F-10 melanoma cells in mice.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular / drug effects*
  • Interleukin-2 / biosynthesis
  • K562 Cells / drug effects
  • Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects
  • Male
  • Melanoma, Experimental / immunology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / pathology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / prevention & control*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Nyctaginaceae*
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use


  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • Interleukin-2
  • Plant Extracts
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor