In 2005, road traffic injuries resulted in the death of an estimated 110,000 persons, 2.5 million hospitalizations, 8-9 million minor injuries and economic losses to the tune of 3% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in India. If the present trend continues, India will witness the deaths of 150,000 persons and hospitalization of 3 million people annually by 2010, increasing further to 200,000 deaths and more than 3.5 million hospitalizations annually by 2015. Nearly 10%-30% of hospital registrations are due to road traffic injuries and a majority of these people have varying levels of disabilities. A majority of victims of road traffic injuries are men in the age group of 15-44 years and belong to the poorer sections of society. Also, a vast majority of those killed and injured are pedestrians, motorcyclists and pillions riders, and bicyclists. A clearly defined road safety policy, a central coordinating agency, allocation of adequate resources, strict implementation of proven and effective interventions and reliable information systems are urgently required. Greater participation from health and other sectors based on an integrated, intersectoral and coordinated approach is essential. Health professionals can contribute in numerous ways and should take a lead role in reducing the burden of road traffic injuries in India.