Restraint stress differentially affects anti-viral cellular and humoral immune responses in mice

J Neuroimmunol. 1991 Mar;31(3):245-55. doi: 10.1016/0165-5728(91)90046-a.


Physical restraint administered to C57BL/6 mice significantly altered the inflammatory response to influenza virus infection and depressed anti-viral cellular immunity. Restraint-stressed animals showed a pattern of reduced mononuclear cell infiltration and lung consolidation which coincided with elevated plasma corticosterone levels. Furthermore, cellular immunity to virus was significantly depressed; interleukin-2 secretion was reduced by 96% and 59% in the mediastinal lymph nodes and spleens, respectively, as compared to a non-restrained group. However, the magnitude of the humoral immune response to influenza virus was unaffected by restraint stress. Anti-viral IgG antibody levels in restrained/infected mice did not differ when compared to a non-restrained/infected control group 14 days post-infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis
  • Corticosterone / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-2 / biosynthesis
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / pathology
  • Restraint, Physical
  • Stress, Physiological / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Interleukin-2
  • Corticosterone