The roles of androgen receptor AR(CAG)n gene polymorphisms and sex hormone-binding globulin SHBG(TAAAA)n gene polymorphisms on semen quality were studied. One hundred fourteen men were included in the study: 85 with normal sperm count and 29 oligospermic. The genotype analysis, on DNA extracted from spermatozoa, revealed five SHBG(TAAAA)n alleles with 6-10 repeats and 18 AR(CAG)n alleles with 12-32 repeats. The SHBG allelic distribution showed that in men with normal sperm count and motility, those with short SHBG alleles had higher sperm concentration than men with long SHBG alleles (P = 0.039). As concerns AR(CAG)n polymorphisms, men with short AR alleles had lower sperm motility compared to those with long AR alleles (P < 0.001) in both total study population and normal sperm count men. The synergistic effect analysis of the two polymorphisms revealed an association between sperm motility (P = 0.036), because of the effect of AR(CAG)n polymorphism on sperm motility. In conclusion, long AR alleles were found to be associated with higher sperm motility, while short SHBG alleles were associated with higher sperm concentration, supporting the significance of these genes in spermatogenesis and semen quality.