Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) studies were performed in 113 infants less than 1 year old at risk of renal scarring. Of these patients 86 presented with urinary tract infection and 27 were asymptomatic. A voiding cystourethrogram was performed in all cases and excretory urography (IVP) was done in 99. More abnormalities were detected by DMSA study when compared to scars on IVP. When both studies were abnormal there was an excellent correlation on a site by site basis. Fever or systemic disorder was not a reliable sign to determine whether there was upper tract involvement with infection. The incidence of DMSA abnormalities in infants increased with high grade vesicoureteral reflux and decreased with low grade reflux. There was no significant difference in the incidence of abnormal kidneys between the infected and noninfected groups, suggesting that renal scarring may occur with sterile reflux.