Effects of hepatitis B virus, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and familial tendency on hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatology. 1991 Mar;13(3):398-406.


Independent and interactive effects related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma were assessed using a community-based case-control study for hepatitis B virus, habitual alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, peanut consumption and history of hepatocellular carcinoma among the immediate family. All 200 male newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma patients were recruited consecutively through the period of study as the case group from two teaching medical centers in northern and southern Taiwan. Healthy community residents matched one-to-one with cases on age, sex, ethnic group and residential area were selected as the control group. The carrier status of HBsAg and HBeAg was determined by blind radioimmunoassays, and other risk factors were obtained through standardized interviews according to a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the carrier status of HBsAg and HBeAg with an odds ratio of 16.7 and 56.5, respectively, for carriers of HBsAg alone and for carriers of both HBsAg and HBeAg. There was a dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and hepatocellular carcinoma with an odds ratio of 1.1, 1.5 and 2.6, respectively, for those who smoked 1 to 10, 11 to 20 and more than 20 cigarettes a day. A significant association with hepatocellular carcinoma was also observed for the habitual alcohol consumer with an odds ratio of 3.4. Those whose immediate family had a history of hepatocellular carcinoma were more likely to have the disease develop, with an odds ratio of 4.6. However, the frequency of peanut consumption was not significantly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects*
  • Arachis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology*
  • Carrier State
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / analysis
  • Hepatitis B e Antigens / analysis
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Taiwan


  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
  • Hepatitis B e Antigens