Dippu-allatostatins (ASTs) have pleiotropic effects in Locusta migratoria. Dippu-ASTs act as releasing factors for adipokinetic hormone I (AKH I) from the corpus cardiacum (CC) and also alter juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and release from the corpus allatum (CA). Dippu-AST-like immunoreactivity is found within lateral neurosecretory cells (LNCs) of the brain and axons within the paired nervi corporis cardiaci II (NCC II) to the CC and the CA, where there are extensive processes and nerve endings over both of these neuroendocrine organs. There was co-localization of Dippu-AST-like and proctolin-like immunoreactivity within these regions. Dippu-ASTs increase the release of AKH I in a dose-dependent manner, with thresholds below 10(-11)M (Dippu-AST 7) and between 10(-13) and 10(-12)M (Dippu-AST 2). Both proctolin and Dippu-AST 2 caused an increase in the cAMP content of the glandular lobe of the CC. Dippu-AST 2 also altered the release of JH from the locust CA, but this effect depended on the concentration of peptide and the basal release rates of the CA. These physiological effects for Dippu-ASTs in Locusta have not been shown previously.