Abnormal nuclear megakaryocytic staining for phospho-STAT5 (pSTAT5) correlates with JAK2 V617F mutational status in non-chronic myelogenous leukemia chronic myeloproliferative disorders. However, a proportion of wild-type JAK2 non-chronic myelogenous leukemia chronic myeloproliferative disorders cases also demonstrate this abnormal pSTAT5 expression pattern. We report a patient with a JAK2 V617F-negative myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome who had abnormal megakaryocytic pSTAT5 expression and a MPL W515L mutation. The patient was a 71-year-old man with anemia and thrombocythemia on laboratory examination. His peripheral blood smear demonstrated occasional dysplastic neutrophils. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hypercellular marrow with features consistent with myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome. Immunohistochemistry for pSTAT5 showed abnormal nuclear megakaryocyte positivity. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization for BCR-ABL was negative, and JAK2 genotyping demonstrated wild-type JAK2. However, MPL genotyping showed a MPL W515L mutation. Abnormal nuclear megakaryocytic staining for pSTAT5 expression, previously associated with the JAK2 V617F mutation, is also associated with MPL W515L, likely reflecting activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.