Basic concept of development and practical application of animal models for human diseases

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2008;324:1-24. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-75647-7_1.


The "humanized mouse" is a mouse harboring functioning human tissues used as in vivo human models for both physiological and pathological conditions. The NOD/Shi-scid IL2rgamma(null) (NOG) mouse, an excellent immunodeficient mouse used as the basis for the humanized mouse, requires strict genetic and environmental control for production and use in experiments. Genetic control using marker-assisted selection is described. In addition, NOG mice are easily affected by microbiological and proximate environmental factors, which can cause severe damage to the mice in some cases. Therefore, rigorous microbiological and environmental controls are necessary to ensure reproducibility of experimental results. At the end of this chapter, future aspects of the application of "humanized mice" based on novel super-immunodeficient mice such as NOG mice and Rag2(null) IL2rgamma(null) mice in biomedical research and testing are briefly reviewed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / deficiency
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit / deficiency
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred NOD
  • Mice, SCID


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Il2rg protein, mouse
  • Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit
  • Rag2 protein, mouse