Objectives: We investigated whether the loss of function CYP2C19 681G>A *2 polymorphism is associated with high (>14%) residual platelet aggregation (RPA) on clopidogrel and whether high on-clopidogrel RPA impacts clinical outcome after elective coronary stent placement.
Background: The cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite may contribute to the variability in antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel.
Methods: The study included 797 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, who were followed-up for 1 year. Adenosine-diphosphate-induced (5 mumol/l) RPA was assessed after a 600-mg loading dose and after the first 75-mg maintenance dose of clopidogrel before discharge. CYP2C19 genotype was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Of the patients included, 552 (69.3%) were CYP2C19 wild-type homozygotes (*1/*1) and 245 (30.7%) carried at least one *2 allele. Residual platelet aggregation at baseline did not differ significantly between genotypes. On clopidogrel, RPA was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in *2 carriers than in wild-type homozygotes (23.0% [interquartile range (IQR) 8.0% to 38.0%] vs. 11.0% [IQR 3.0% to 28.0%] after loading; 11.0% [IQR 5.0% to 22.0%] vs. 7.0% [IQR 3.0% to 14.0%] at pre-discharge). Between *2 carriers and wild-type homozygotes, we found significant (p < 0.001) differences in the proportion of patients with RPA >14%, both after loading (62.4% vs. 43.4%) and at pre-discharge (41.3% vs. 22.5%). Residual platelet aggregation >14% at pre-discharge incurred a 3.0-fold increase (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.8; p = 0.004) in the 1-year incidence of death and myocardial infarction.
Conclusions: Patients carrying at least one CYP2C19*2 allele are more prone to high-on clopidogrel platelet reactivity, which is associated with poor clinical outcome after coronary stent placement (Effect of Clopidogrel Loading and Risk of PCI [EXCELSIOR]; NCT00457236).