HIV-1 incidence among women of reproductive age in Malawi

Int J STD AIDS. 2008 May;19(5):339-41. doi: 10.1258/ijsa.2007.007165.


The aim of this study was to determine HIV-1 incidence among women of reproductive age in Malawi. A prospective study design was followed. HIV-1 uninfected women were followed up for nine visits during a period of 12 months. At baseline, women received HIV-1 counselling and testing. At each visit, venous blood was collected for HIV-1 testing. Incidence rate for HIV-1 was estimated using person-years of follow up (PYFU). Risk factors for HIV acquisition were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 842 HIV-1 negative women were enrolled in the study. Of these, 787 had subsequent HIV testing and 31 were found HIV-1 infected; an overall incidence rate of 4.51 (95% confidence interval: 2.96-6.06) per 100 PYFU was obtained. Young age, using hormonal injectable contraceptives and bacterial vaginosis were the main predictors of HIV acquisition. The incidence of HIV continues to be high among women in Malawi, and young women appear to be at higher risk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Contraceptive Agents
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / etiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Malawi / epidemiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / diagnosis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / prevention & control
  • Vaginosis, Bacterial / epidemiology


  • Contraceptive Agents