Ninety infants less than 1 year of age with pneumonia and 43 control infants were investigated for viral and chlamydial infection with the use of culture and serology and for bacterial infection with the use of blood cultures, lung aspirates, antibody assays and antigen detection procedures. One or more potential pathogens were identified in 62 (69%) cases with pneumonia and in 12 (28%) controls. Infection by respiratory viruses was identified in 42 (49%) cases and in 8 (19%) controls. Respiratory syncytial virus was the commonest pathogen identified and was found in 32 cases (37%). Bacterial infections were also common, being found in 27 (30%) cases and 3 (7%) controls, and predominantly involved Streptococcus pneumoniae (20%) or Haemophilus influenzae (11%). Bacterial infections were associated with raised white blood cell counts and were identified more often by antigen detection procedures (68%) than by culture of blood or lung aspirates (34%) or by serology (33%). Mixed viral-bacterial infections were identified in 13 cases (15%). Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis was diagnosed in 2 infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection and in 1 control infant.