The nucleotide sequence of the HA1 of the haemagglutinin of an HI avian influenza virus isolate from turkeys in Germany provides additional evidence suggesting recent transmission from pigs

Avian Pathol. 1997;26(2):347-55. doi: 10.1080/03079459708419217.


The nucleotide sequence encoding the HA1 portion of the haemagglutinin gene of the influenza virus A/turkey/Germany/2482/90j isolated from birds kept in an area of many pig farms, was determined and compared with those of recent avian and swine influenza isolates. It was found to be closest to the 'avian-like' swine H1N1 influenza viruses that have been reported in Europe since the early 1980s and may represent good evidence for transmission of these viruses back to birds after they have become established in pigs.