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, 133 (4), 693-703

TNF-alpha Induces Two Distinct caspase-8 Activation Pathways

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TNF-alpha Induces Two Distinct caspase-8 Activation Pathways

Lai Wang et al. Cell.

Abstract

The inflammatory response of mammalian cells to TNF-alpha can be switched to apoptosis either by cotreatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, or Smac mimetic, a small molecule mimic of Smac/Diablo protein. Cycloheximide promotes caspase-8 activation by eliminating endogenous caspase-8 inhibitor, c-FLIP, while Smac mimetic does so by triggering autodegradation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 (cIAP1/2), leading to the release of receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK1) from the activated TNF receptor complex to form a caspase-8-activating complex consisting of RIPK1, FADD, and caspase-8. This process also requires the action of CYLD, a RIPK1 K63 deubiquitinating enzyme. RIPK1 is critical for caspase-8 activation-induced by Smac mimetic but dispensable for that triggered by cycloheximide. Moreover, Smac mimetic-induced caspase-8 activation is not blocked by endogenous c-FLIP. These findings revealed that TNF-alpha is able to induce apoptosis via two distinct caspase-8 activation pathways that are differentially regulated by cIAP1/2 and c-FLIP.

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