NOX enzymes and Toll-like receptor signaling

Semin Immunopathol. 2008 Jul;30(3):291-300. doi: 10.1007/s00281-008-0120-9. Epub 2008 May 21.


Invading microorganisms are recognized by the host innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors. Among these receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are able to sense the molecular signatures of microbial pathogens, protozoa, fungi, and virus and activate proinflammatory signaling cascades. In addition to their role in bacterial killing by phagocytes, reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) homologues also play key roles in signaling and host defense in a variety of cell types. Recent studies have demonstrated a link between TLR activation and NOX homologues following microbial recognition highlighting their important role in the innate immune response and host defense.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • NADPH Oxidases / immunology*
  • NADPH Oxidases / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism


  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • NADPH Oxidases