Objective: Intracerebral hemorrhages, whether spontaneous or traumatic (tICH), often expand, and an association has been described between hemorrhage expansion and worse clinical outcomes. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is a hemostatic agent that has been shown to limit hemorrhage expansion and which, therefore, could potentially reduce morbidity and mortality in tICH. This first prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and preliminary effectiveness of rFVIIa to limit tICH progression.
Methods: Patients were enrolled if they had tICH lesions of at least 2 ml on a baseline computed tomographic scan obtained within 6 hours of injury. rFVIIa or placebo was administered within 2.5 hours of the baseline computed tomographic scan but no later than 7 hours after injury. Computed tomographic scans were repeated at 24 and 72 hours. Five escalating dose tiers were evaluated (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 microg/kg rFVIIa). Clinical evaluations and adverse events were recorded until Day 15.
Results: No significant differences were detected in mortality rate or number and type of adverse events among treatment groups. Asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis, detected on routinely performed ultrasound at Day 3, was observed more frequently in the combined rFVIIa treatment group (placebo, 3%; rFVIIa, 8%; not significant). A nonsignificant trend for rFVIIa dose-response to limit tICH volume increase was observed (placebo, 21.0 ml; rFVIIa, 10.1 ml).
Conclusion: In this first prospective study of rFVIIa in tICH, there appeared to be less hematoma progression in rFVIIa-treated patients (80-200 microg/kg) compared with that seen in placebo treated patients. The potential significance of this biological effect on clinical outcomes and the significance of the somewhat higher incidence of ultrasound-detected deep vein thromboses in the rFVIIa-treated group need to be examined in a larger prospective randomized clinical trial.