Dyslipidemia complicates renal function leading to disturbances of major homeostatic organs in the body. Here we examined the effect of chronic renal dysfunction induced by uninephrectomy on fat redistribution and lipid peroxidation in rats treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (lisinopril) for up to 10 months. Uninephrectomized rats developed fat redistribution and hypercholesterolemia typical of chronic renal failure when compared with sham-operated rats or lisinopril-treated uninephrectomized rats. The weight of the peri-renal fat was significantly less in the untreated compared to the lisinopril-treated uninephrectomized rats or those rats with a sham operation. We also found that there was a shift of heat-protecting unilocular adipocytes to heat-producing multilocular fat cells in the untreated uninephrectomized rats. Similarly in these rats we found a shift of subcutaneous and visceral fat to ectopic fat with excessive lipid accumulation and lipofuscin pigmentation. Lisinopril treatment prevented fat redistribution or transformation and lipid peroxidation. This study shows that ACE inhibition may prevent the fat anomalies associated with chronic renal dysfunction.