Impact and perspective on chronic kidney disease in an Asian developing country: a large-scale survey in North Vietnam

Nephron Clin Pract. 2008;109(1):c25-32. doi: 10.1159/000134379. Epub 2008 May 23.


Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia is expected to increase along with increases of hypertension and diabetes. Most cases are not treated and progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with an increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Renal replacement therapies are so expensive that most ESRD patients die without treatment. Thus, countermeasures against early stages of CKD are urgently needed. Nevertheless, basic information for CKD has not been reported in Vietnam.

Methods: We conducted a survey of CKD in 8,505 inhabitants aged >40 years in Vietnam. Subjects with abnormal urinary findings were further examined, including serum creatinine levels. In this study, CKD was defined as <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) of estimated creatinine clearance by the Cockcroft-Gault method.

Results: We identified 3.1% of subjects as CKD (stages 3-5) with positive findings in urine test. We also found that elderly hypertension and malnutrition were independent risk factors for CKD in this population.

Conclusion: We found a significant number of CKD patients in Vietnam. To avoid a CKD pandemic in Asia including Vietnam, we strongly suggest further analyses of risk factors and prognosis of CKD in these populations, and the development of efficient management systems suitable for Asia.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Data Collection
  • Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Sickness Impact Profile*
  • Vietnam / epidemiology