N-acetyl-dinaline (CI-994) is an investigational anti-cancer drug which inhibits histone deacetylases. We evaluated the interaction between CI-994 and conventional chemotherapeutics used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a rat model for AML and Brown Norway rat acute myelocytic leukemia (BNML). In vitro, CI-994 in combination with cytarabine (ara-C), daunorubicin and mitoxantrone, resulted in moderate synergism. In vivo, higher dosages of CI-994 induced complete remissions. CI-994/ara-C was very active against BNML. The combinations of CI-994/daunorubicin and CI-994/mitoxantrone were also active against BNML. This study demonstrates favorable in vitro and in vivo interactions between CI-994 and conventional anti-cancer agents used for the treatment of AML.