Inhibitory effect of voluntary running wheel exercise on the growth of human pancreatic Panc-1 and prostate PC-3 xenograft tumors in immunodeficient mice

Oncol Rep. 2008 Jun;19(6):1583-8.


In the present study, we investigated the effect of voluntary exercise on the formation and growth of the human pancreas Panc-1 and prostate PC-3 tumors in immunodeficient mice. Female severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were injected subcutaneously with human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells, and male SCID mice were injected subcutaneously with human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Voluntary running wheel exercise for 63 days, starting one week before the subcutaneous injection of Panc-1 or PC-3 tumor cells into SCID mice, suppressed the growth of Panc-1 and PC-3 tumors. The exercise regimen increased the food and fluid consumption in the female and male mice. Exercise also decreased the size of the parametrial fat pads in the female mice and the paradidymis fat pads in the male mice, but there was no effect on the body weight. Mechanistic studies showed that voluntary running wheel exercise inhibited proliferation as reflected by a decreased mitosis, and the exercise regimen also stimulated apoptosis as reflected by the increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in the Panc-1 and PC-3 tumors. Voluntary running wheel exercise decreased the ratio of the percent mitotic cells/apoptotic cells in Panc-1 and PC-3 tumors by 38 and 32%, respectively. The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of voluntary exercise on the growth of pancreas and prostate tumors in a SCID mouse xenograft model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, SCID
  • Mitotic Index
  • Motor Activity*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Caspase 3