Drug use, high-risk sex behaviors, and increased risk for recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Chicago and Los Angeles

AIDS Behav. 2009 Dec;13(6):1084-96. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9403-3. Epub 2008 May 23.


We examined how drugs, high-risk sexual behaviors, and socio-demographic variables are associated with recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a case-control study. Interviewers collected risk factor data among 111 cases with recent HIV infection, and 333 HIV-negative controls from Chicago and Los Angeles. Compared with controls, cases had more unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners. MSM with lower income or prior sexually transmitted infections (STI) were more likely to be recently HIV infected. Substances associated with UAI included amyl nitrate ("poppers"), methamphetamine, Viagra (or similar PDE-5 inhibitors), ketamine, and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Cases more frequently used Viagra, poppers, and methamphetamine during UAI compared with controls. In multivariate analysis, income, UAI with HIV-positive partners, Viagra, and poppers remained associated with recent HIV seroconversion. Better methods are needed to prevent HIV among MSM who engage in high-risk sex with concurrent drug use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / adverse effects
  • Chicago / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Los Angeles / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Methamphetamine / adverse effects
  • Middle Aged
  • Piperazines / adverse effects
  • Purines / adverse effects
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk-Taking*
  • Sildenafil Citrate
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Sulfones / adverse effects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vasodilator Agents / adverse effects


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Piperazines
  • Purines
  • Sulfones
  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Methamphetamine
  • Sildenafil Citrate