Background: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) has been associated with increased risk for second malignancies. However, the degree of risk and types of second cancers detected have been inconsistent in previous studies.
Patients and methods: To further characterize the risk for malignancy associated with CTCL, patients treated for CTCL at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, between November 1979 and November 1999 were assessed for the occurrence of additional cancers by analysis of institutional tumor registry data.
Results: Of 672 patients with CTCL, 112 had > or = 1 additional cancer, 37 occurring after the diagnosis of CTCL. This represents a significant elevation in cancer prevalence and incidence, with a 1.79-fold risk (95% CI, 1.22-2.39) for developing cancer after CTCL. An excess of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and vulvar cancers was seen.
Conclusion: These data provide evidence for an increased overall incidence of second malignancy in CTCL, particularly with respect to other lymphoproliferative malignancies. Appropriate monitoring for the early detection of second cancers might be warranted in patients with CTCL.