Objective: Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the association of endometrial cancer risk with cigarette smoking. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to examine this relation.
Methods: A systematic literature search up to June of 2007 was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model.
Results: Ten prospective and 24 case-control studies were included in the analysis of the effect of ever smoking. Ever smoking was statistically significantly associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer among prospective studies (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.88) and case-control studies (odds ratio 0.72; 95% CI, 0.66-0.79). The inverse association was significant among current and former smokers. Six prospective and 6 case-control studies were included in the quantitative analysis. We noted that an increase in smoking of 20 cigarettes per day was statistically significantly associated with 16% and 27% reduced risks of endometrial cancer in prospective and case-control studies, respectively. We also found that cigarette smoking was significantly associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women (relative risk 0.71; 95% CI, 0.65-0.78) but not among premenopausal women. In addition, the risk reduction seemed to be stronger among hormone replacement therapy users than nonusers.
Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was found to be significantly associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, especially among postmenopausal women.