The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1alpha up regulates apelin in human and mouse adipocytes

Regul Pept. 2008 Oct 9;150(1-3):33-7. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2008.04.003. Epub 2008 Apr 13.


By using pangenomic microarray, we identified apelin as a unique adipokine up regulated by the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) in human white adipocytes. We investigated its regulation in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of PGC-1alpha by adenovirus in human adipocytes induces apelin expression and secretion. Pharmacological induction of cAMP, an upstream regulator of endogenous PGC-1alpha expression, up regulates apelin gene expression and also apelin secretion in human and mice adipocytes. Moreover, during cold exposure in mice, a physiological situation known to induce both cAMP and PGC-1alpha, apelin expression in adipocytes and plasma levels were increased. This is the first demonstration that PGC-1alpha is involved in the regulation of an adipokine gene expression and release.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / metabolism
  • Adipocytes / physiology*
  • Adipokines
  • Adipose Tissue, White / cytology
  • Animals
  • Apelin
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Trans-Activators / physiology*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*


  • APLN protein, human
  • Adipokines
  • Apelin
  • Apln protein, mouse
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • PPARGC1A protein, human
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha
  • Ppargc1a protein, mouse
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors