Transferring genes into cultured mammalian embryos by electroporation

Dev Growth Differ. 2008 Aug;50(6):485-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-169X.2008.01046.x. Epub 2008 May 26.


Mammalian whole embryo culture (WEC) was developed long before transgenic and gene targeted animals are widely used. Electroporation (EP) into cultured rodent embryos has expanded the potential to analyze gene functions in mammalian embryos by transferring exogenous plasmid vectors or small nucleotides in region- and stage-specific ways. This method is quite simple, and therefore enables us to analyze gene functions more quickly than genetic manipulation. In this review, we introduce combinatorial methods of WEC and EP, and summarize various applications in developmental neurobiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Lineage
  • Developmental Biology / methods*
  • Electroporation / methods*
  • Embryo Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Embryonic Development / genetics
  • Gene Transfer Techniques*
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Genetic
  • Oxygen / metabolism
  • Plasmids / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Time Factors


  • Oxygen