Background: Group X secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-X) has the most potent hydrolyzing activity toward phosphatidylcholine and elicits a marked release of arachidonic acid among several types of sPLA(2). sPLA(2)-X is expressed in neutrophils, but its pathogenic role remains unclear.
Methods and results: We generated mice that lack sPLA(2)-X and studied their response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. The sPLA(2)-X(-/-) mice had a significant reduction in myocardial infarct size and a decrease in myocardial myeloperoxidase activity compared with sPLA(2)-X(+/+) mice. Myocardial infarct size was also significantly reduced in lethally irradiated sPLA(2)-X(+/+) mice reconstituted with sPLA(2)-X(-/-) bone marrow compared with sPLA(2)-X(+/+) bone marrow. The extent of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was comparable between sPLA(2)-X(-/-) and sPLA(2)-X(+/+) mice in Langendorff experiments using isolated hearts and blood-free perfusion buffer, supporting a potential role of sPLA(2)-X in blood in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the infarcted myocardium of sPLA(2)-X(+/+) mice, sPLA(2)-X was released from neutrophils but not myocardial tissues and platelets and was undetectable in the peripheral serum. The sPLA(2)-X(-/-) mice had lower accumulation of neutrophils in ischemic myocardium, and the isolated sPLA(2)-X(-/-) neutrophils had lower release of arachidonic acid and attenuated cytotoxic activities including respiratory burst compared with sPLA(2)-X(+/+) neutrophils. The attenuated functions of sPLA(2)-X(-/-) neutrophils were reversible by the exogenous addition of sPLA(2)-X protein. Furthermore, administration of a sPLA(2) inhibitor reduced myocardial infarct size and suppressed the cytotoxic activity of sPLA(2)-X(+/+) neutrophils.
Conclusions: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was attenuated in sPLA(2)-X(-/-) mice partly through the suppression of neutrophil cytotoxic activities.