Genetic instability is known to drive colorectal carcinogenesis. Generally, a distinction is made between two types of genetic instability: chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MIN or MSI). Most CIN tumours are aneuploid, whereas MSI tumours are considered near-diploid. However, for MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) the genetic instability involved in the carcinogenesis remains unclear, as near-diploid adenomas, aneuploid adenomas and near-diploid carcinomas have been reported. Remarkably, our analysis of 26 MAP carcinomas, using SNP arrays and flow sorting, showed that these tumours are often near-diploid (52%) and mainly contain chromosomal regions of copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) (71%). This is in contrast to sporadic colon cancer, where physical loss is the main characteristic. The percentage of chromosomal gains (24%) is comparable to sporadic colorectal cancers with CIN. Furthermore, we verified our scoring of copy-neutral LOH versus physical loss in MAP carcinomas by two methods: fluorescence in situ hybridization, and LOH analysis using polymorphic markers on carcinoma fractions purified by flow sorting. The results presented in this study suggest that copy-neutral LOH is an important mechanism in the tumorigenesis of MAP.