Platelets and wound healing

Front Biosci. 2008 May 1;13:3532-48.

Abstract

Platelets help prevent blood loss at sites of vascular injury. To do this, they adhere, aggregate and form a procoagulant surface favoring thrombin generation and fibrin formation. In addition, platelets express and release substances that promote tissue repair and influence processes such as angiogenesis, inflammation and the immune response. They contain large secretable pools of biologically active proteins, while newly synthesized active metabolites are also released. Although anucleate, activated platelets possess a spliceosome and can synthesize tissue factor and interleukin-1beta. The binding of secreted proteins within a developing fibrin mesh or to the extracellular matrix can create chemotactic gradients favoring the recruitment of stem cells, stimulating cell migration and differentiation, and promoting repair. The therapeutic use of platelets in a fibrin clot has a positive influence in clinical situations requiring rapid healing. Dental implant surgery, orthopaedic surgery, muscle and tendon repair, skin ulcers, hole repair in eye surgery and cardiac surgery are situations where the use of autologous platelets accelerates healing. We now review the ways in which platelets participate in these processes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Coagulation / physiology
  • Blood Platelets / physiology*
  • Cytoplasmic Granules / physiology
  • Fibrin / physiology
  • Humans
  • Lysosomes / physiology
  • Nerve Regeneration / physiology*
  • Proteome
  • Surgical Procedures, Operative
  • Wound Healing / physiology*

Substances

  • Proteome
  • Fibrin