We assessed the outcome of pretransplant cardiac assessment in a single center. Three hundred patients with end-stage renal disease underwent electrocardiogram, Bruce exercise testing (ETT) and ventricular assessment by cardiac MRI. Patients with high index of suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if indicated. Two hundred and twenty-two patients were accepted onto the renal transplant waiting list; 80 patients were transplanted during the follow-up period and 60 died (7 following transplantation). Successful transplantation was associated with improved survival (mean survival 4.5 +/- 0.6 years vs. listed not transplanted 4.1 +/- 1.4 years vs. not listed 3.1 +/- 1.7 years; p < 0.001). Ninety-nine patients underwent coronary angiography; 65 had normal or low-grade CAD and 34 obstructive CAD. Seventeen patients (5.6%) were treated by PCI. There was no apparent survival difference between patients who underwent PCI or coronary artery bypass graft compared to those who underwent angiography without intervention or no angiography (p = 0.67). Factors associated with nonlisting for renal transplantation included burden of preexisting cardiovascular disease, poor exercise tolerance and severity of CAD. Pretransplant cardiovascular screening provides prognostic information and information that can be used to restrict access to transplantation. However, if the aim is to identify and treat CAD, the benefits are far from clear.