Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors delay the occurrence of renal involvement and are associated with a decreased risk of disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus--results from LUMINA (LIX): a multiethnic US cohort

Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Jul;47(7):1093-6. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken208. Epub 2008 May 29.


Objective: To examine if angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use delays the occurrence of renal involvement and decreases the risk of disease activity in SLE patients.

Methods: SLE patients (Hispanics, African Americans and Caucasians) from the lupus in minorities: nature vs nurture (LUMINA) cohort were studied. Renal involvement was defined as ACR criterion and/or biopsy-proven lupus nephritis. Time-to-renal involvement was examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Disease activity was examined with a case-crossover design and a conditional logistic regression model; in the case intervals, a decrease in the SLAM-R score >or=4 points occurred but not in the control intervals.

Results: Eighty of 378 patients (21%) were ACE inhibitor users; 298 (79%) were not. The probability of renal involvement free-survival at 10 yrs was 88.1% for users and 75.4% for non-users (P = 0.0099, log rank test). Users developed persistent proteinuria and/or biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (7.1%) less frequently than non-users (22.9%), P = 0.016. By multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, ACE inhibitors use [hazard ratio (HR) 0.27; 95% CI 0.09, 0.78] was associated with a longer time-to-renal involvement occurrence whereas African American ethnicity (HR 3.31; 95% CI 1.44, 7.61) was with a shorter time. ACE inhibitor use (54/288 case and 254/1148 control intervals) was also associated with a decreased risk of disease activity (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34, 0.94).

Conclusions: ACE inhibitor use delays the development of renal involvement and associates with a decreased risk of disease activity in SLE; corroboration of these findings in other lupus cohorts is desirable before practice recommendations are formulated.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Black or African American / statistics & numerical data
  • Disease Progression
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / ethnology
  • Lupus Nephritis / ethnology
  • Lupus Nephritis / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteinuria / prevention & control
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors