Prevalence and associations of hallux valgus in a primary care population

Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Jun 15;59(6):857-62. doi: 10.1002/art.23709.


Objective: To determine the population prevalence and examine factors associated with hallux valgus in a primary care population.

Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to all adults age >30 years registered with 2 general practices. Validated instruments assessed self-reported hallux valgus, nodal osteoarthritis, and knee pain. The questionnaire also asked about big toe pain, joint replacement, and history of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Hallux valgus prevalence was calculated and standardized by the source population in terms of age, sex, knee pain, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. A nested case-control study was undertaken and age-sex adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated between hallux valgus and age, sex, body mass index, nodal osteoarthritis, knee pain, big toe pain, joint replacement, self-reported osteoarthritis, and self-reported rheumatoid arthritis, using a binary logistic regression model.

Results: A total of 13,684 questionnaires were mailed and 4,249 (32%) responses were received. The standardized prevalence of hallux valgus was 28.4%. Hallux valgus was associated with age (adjusted OR 1.61 per decade; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.52-1.69), female sex (adjusted OR 2.64; 95% CI 2.26-3.08), nodal osteoarthritis (adjusted OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.26-2.17), knee pain (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.65-2.32), big toe pain (adjusted OR 3.28; 95% CI 2.48-4.33), self-reported osteoarthritis (adjusted OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.15-1.72), and self-reported rheumatoid arthritis (adjusted OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.43-2.91).

Conclusion: Hallux valgus is prevalent in the community and is associated with age, female sex, and components of generalized osteoarthritis such as nodal osteoarthritis, knee pain, big toe pain, and self-reported osteoarthritis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Hallux Valgus / complications*
  • Hallux Valgus / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoarthritis / complications
  • Pain
  • Prevalence
  • Primary Health Care
  • Sex Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires