The association of the p53 polymorphism at codon 72 and susceptibility to develop human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer has been investigated in several studies with controversial results. In this study, 78 penile squamous cell carcinoma biopsies (n=17 from Uganda, n=61 from Italy) and blood samples from 150 healthy controls (n=57 from Uganda, n=93 from Italy) have been analyzed for the arginine and proline allele distribution. Among Ugandan cases the heterozygous, proline homozygous and arginine homozygous genotype frequency was 41.2%, 52.9% and 5.9%, respectively, and among controls was 40.3%, 54.4%, and 5.3%, respectively (P=0.9917). Conversely, among Italian cases genotype distribution was 42.6%, 4.9%, and 52.5%, and among controls was 34.4%, 7.5%, and 58.1%, respectively (P=0.5343). No significant differences in arginine and proline allele distribution were observed when the cases were stratified by HPV status. Therefore, no evidence of association between homozygosity for p53 arginine and HPV-related or HPV-unrelated penile squamous cell carcinoma was observed neither among Ugandan nor among Italian populations.