Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in the regulation of angiogenesis and has been related to cancer development and progression. To evaluate the role of VEGF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in prostate cancer, we performed a case-control study including 702 prostate cancer patients and 702 male age-matched healthy control subjects. Seven VEGF candidate polymorphisms were determined by 5'-nuclease (TaqMan) assays. Furthermore, VEGF plasma levels and genotypes were analysed in a group of 64 healthy men. Haplotype analysis showed two separate blocks of high-linkage disequilibrium, formed by five polymorphisms upstream of the coding sequence (promoter and 5'-untranslated region) and two polymorphisms downstream of the coding sequence. None of the single polymorphisms or haplotypes was significantly associated with the presence of prostate cancer. In a multivariate regression analysis including age, VEGF genotypes and haplotypes as covariates and VEGF plasma level as dependent variable, none of the VEGF polymorphism or haplotypes was a significant predictor of VEGF plasma levels. The present data suggest that polymorphisms or haplotypes in the VEGF gene do not modify the risk of prostate cancer.