Graft remodeling and ligamentization after cruciate ligament reconstruction

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008 Sep;16(9):834-42. doi: 10.1007/s00167-008-0560-8. Epub 2008 May 31.


After reconstruction of the cruciate ligaments, replacement grafts have to undergo several phases of healing in the intra-articular graft region and at the site of graft-to-bone incorporation. The changes in the biological and mechanical properties of the healing graft in its intra-articular region are described as the ligamentization process. Significant knowledge has been added in the understanding of the several processes during the course of graft healing and is summarized in this article. The understanding of the spatial and time-dependent changes as well as the differences between the different models of graft healing are of significant importance to develop strategies of improved treatment options in cruciate ligament surgery, so that full restoration of function and mechanical strength of the intact cruciate ligaments will be achieved.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / pathology
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiopathology*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery*
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Collagen / physiology
  • Humans
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • Tendons / transplantation*


  • Collagen