A recent clinicopathologic study of a series of patients with monocytoid B-cell lymphoma (MBCL) indicated that there is a frequent association between MBCL and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and raised the possibility of a relationship between these two disease entities. To further investigate the possible relationship of MBCL and SS, we studied pathologic and clinical characteristics of 13 patients with MBCL who had clinically documented SS. In all patients, the lymphoma had the characteristic morphologic features of MBCL, and immunologic and molecular hybridization studies confirmed the B-cell nature of the lymphoma. Twelve of the 13 patients were female, with a median age of 66 years at diagnosis. Eleven had localized disease and presented with either salivary gland or cervical lymph node enlargement; one patient presented with a breast mass, and another with generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. In five of 13 patients, the MBCL was associated with or progressed to large cell lymphoma. In two patients, there was bilateral involvement of the parotid gland; one had a synchronous high-grade lymphoma in both parotid glands. In two patients, bone marrow biopsies showed involvement by MBCL. Eleven patients are alive 2 to 55 months after the diagnosis of MBCL. One patient died with the disease 8 months after the initial diagnosis. Another patient died of an unrelated cause without evidence of disease 16 months after the diagnosis of MBCL. We conclude that there is a more than fortuitous association between MBCL and SS. This concept is consistent with previously reported observations of reactive monocytoid B cells in patients with benign lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary glands, which may result from selective homing of reactive monocytoid B lymphocytes to the benign lymphoepithelial lesions and their subsequent neoplastic transformation.