Although it is uncommon, pediatric brain abscess remains a serious, life-threatening neurological problem. Those with congenital heart disease, an ongoing infection, or an immunocompromised state are particularly at risk. The symptoms on presentation may include those associated with a space-occupying lesion in the brain, and neuroimaging has made the diagnosis of brain abscess more reliable. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are required to lessen neurological morbidity and the risk of death. Treatment includes medical management with appropriate and specific antimicrobials. Although the effectiveness of medical management has improved and some children may be treated with antimicrobial therapy alone, surgical evaluation remains an important component of the treatment algorithm for most pediatric patients.